真相大白 代糖飲料真的會導致中風失智嗎?

真相大白 代糖飲料真的會導致中風失智嗎?

新聞來源:蘋果日報

 

有朋友透過[email protected]來詢問TH:有新聞說:『每天喝代糖飲料減重 中風失智機率增2倍』,真的嗎?

 

TH諮詢藥師說:看看就好,目前並沒有這方面的定論。當然,能少喝一點垃圾飲料,少接觸代糖,總是好的。

 

其實,這篇新聞第一眼就看到一個錯誤~糖精,英文是saccharin,不是saccharine。不過沒關係,這只是新聞報導常出現的小瑕疵,一般民眾不會發現。

 

但,真相又是什麼呢?

 

NBC NEWS上面有相關新聞,標題是『Diet Sodas May Raise Risk of Dementia and Stroke, Study Finds』,外媒報導的內容,並不像中文報導的內容那麼肯定,其實滿中立且引言資料豐富。

 

該篇研究,是由波士頓大學醫學院(Boston University School of Medicine)的Matthew Pase所領導,刊登在Stroke雜誌上。  外媒中,研究領導人Matthew Pase怎麼說? “We found that those people who were consuming diet soda on a daily basis were three times as likely to develop both stroke and dementia within the next 10 years as compared to those who did not consume diet soda,” Pase told NBC News.和沒有喝代糖飲料的對象相比,有喝代糖飲料的,十年後有三倍高機率會發展出中風和失智。 To their surprise, the team did not find the same risk for sugar-sweetened beverages. But they found other troubling signs. “In our first study we found that those who more frequently consume sugary beverages such as fruit juices and sodas had greater evidence of accelerated brain aging such as overall smaller brain volumes, they had poorer memory function and they also had smaller hippocampus, which is an area of the brain important for memory consolidation,” Pase said.糖-甜飲料(果汁、含糖汽水)沒有類似風險,但有其他問題,例如腦部加速老化、較差的記憶能力。 Pase noted that the risks are still low and people who love their daily fix of diet soda do not need to panic. “Even if someone is three times as likely to develop stroke or dementia, it is by no means a certain fate,” Pase said. “In our study, three percent of the people had a new stroke and five percent developed dementia, so we’re still talking about a small number of people developing either stroke or dementia.”研究中,3%中風,5%失智,風險仍然很低,不是絕對的命運。  

外媒中,阿茲海默症協會科學計劃主持人Keith Fargo怎麼說?

 

“Your intake of soda and diet soda and other beverages is part of a greater pattern. There is no simple relationship between what you are eating and drinking,” said Keith Fargo, director of scientific programs for the Alzheimer’s Association.

吃什麼和喝什麼,中間沒有簡單的關聯,因為汽水和代糖汽水或其他飲料,是飲食中的一個小環節。

 

(畢竟在研究中,沒有考慮其他慢性病,或是研究對象的肥胖程度,生活型態,單純在看『飲料』一個變因,而沒有考慮其他更多慢性病的變因。例如『中風』這個問題,『肥胖的人』也是高危險群之一,但在這研究中沒有考慮進去。

 

換句話說,假如這個實驗挑的,剛好都是胖子,那不管有沒有喝代糖汽水,十年後大概也都會出些問題。

 

這類『沒有考慮到更多變因』的問題,也是很多『統計觀察資料』的通病。

 

And Fargo said the study does not point to any specific mechanism for how a diet drink might damage the brain. It’s better for people to just do what the evidence shows will improve their health overall anyway — exercise and eat plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains. “There clearly is a relationship between your heart health and your brain health,” Fargo told NBC News.

這研究中沒有指出關於『代糖如何傷害腦部』的作用機轉,只是指出人們該更用心去改善飲食及生活內容,例如運動、大量新鮮水果、蔬菜和全穀類食物。

 

You have got to pay close attention and be diligent about dietary habits, exercise habits, controlling your blood pressure. It is not going to be simple fix like ‘get rid of the diet soda,'” Fargo added.

要很專心及勤奮注意在飲食習慣、運動習慣和控制血壓,不是簡單的『不要碰代糖飲料』就好。

 

(這句其實就是外媒的結論了。) 

 

中文報導沒說的重點

The team did not ask people which artificial sweetener they used. Some of those in the diet drinks were likely saccharin, acesulfame, aspartame, neotame, or sucralose, the researchers said.

 

整個研究團隊根本沒有去研究代糖的種類,但中文的報導方式是『團隊相信是代糖飲料中的人造代糖,如阿斯巴甜(aspartame)、糖精(saccharin),會損壞人體血管,最終引致中風和失智症。』,容易讓人家誤會就是阿斯巴甜和糖精的問題,其實,根本就沒有『團隊相信』,純『猜測』而已。

 

因為這個研究只是一種『統計觀察』,『吃代糖』和『吃什麼代糖』是兩個完全不同的議題,而新聞中的研究,主要是『吃代糖』,沒有討論『吃什麼代糖』。

 

 

事實上,波士頓大學醫學院(Boston University School of Medicine)怎麼說?

 

在學校的網頁上,有一篇Daily Consumption of Sodas, Fruit Juices and Artificially Sweetened Sodas Affect Brain,『汽水、果汁、代糖汽水會影響大腦』就是原文了。只截取兩段如下:

 

“Our findings indicate an association between higher sugary beverage intake and brain atrophy, including lower brain volume and poorer memory,” explained corresponding author Matthew Pase, PhD, fellow in the department of neurology at BUSM and investigator at the FHS.

Matthew Pase說:我們的研究結果顯示,高糖飲料攝取和腦萎縮之間的關聯,包括較少的腦體積和較差的記憶。

 

Although the researchers suggest that people should be cautious about regularly consuming either diet sodas or sugary beverages, it is premature to say their observations represent cause and effect. Future studies are needed to test whether giving people artificial sweeteners causes adverse effects on the brain.

雖然研究員建議人們對於定期飲用含糖或代糖汽水應該謹慎,但對於他們的觀察結果表示『因果關係』~為時尚早。需要進一步的研究來測試人工甜味劑是否會對大腦造成不良影響。

 

是的,其實只要看了學校原始的新聞稿,也就知道,事實和『媒體』的報導有落差,尤其又翻譯成中文,幾乎變成了另外一則相關新聞了。

 

總結

  1. 只是篇統計結果,沒有討論『代糖』的各種作用機轉及種類。
  2. 只是篇統計結果,沒有討論研究對象的種類,例如年紀、性別、體重、飲食內容、慢性病史…等等。
  3. 只是篇統計結果,顯示『有喝代糖飲料』的對象十年後狀態,忽略研究對象十年中的生活變因,例如『其他飲食內容』。
  4. 只能確定『喝糖及代糖飲料不好』。
  5. 不能下結論說『喝代糖飲料就會中風和失智』。
  6. 需要更多代糖的相關研究來解釋。

 

很多統計報告都會有這類問題,必須要有專業的解讀,才有辦法抓對重點,不然會如這篇中文報導,導讀到錯誤的方向了。

 

TH小編關心您

少接觸含糖飲料,或是代糖飲料,又或是所有的垃圾食物,才是健康的生活方向。

 

延伸閱讀

《代糖的代價》 甜蜜的真相?-台灣環境資訊協會-環境資訊中心
http://e-info.org.tw/node/114129

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